Sony’s Clever but Flawed PlayStation Copy Protection–And How They Might Have Fixed It

Sony’s Clever but Flawed PlayStation Copy Protection–And How They Might Have Fixed It


When Sony released the PlayStation, the first
commercially successful game console to use the compact disc as its storage medium, they
had a problem on their hands. Using a CD gave them all sorts of advantages,
but the CD burner and CD-R presented a challenge. What’s to stop someone from making illegal
copies of our precious intellectual property? Well, they thought of a solution. If I take this copy of Parappa the Rapper
and pop it in my computer’s CD drive, it can see what’s on there. And it will gladly make a copy. My duplicate disc has exactly the same files
on here. Awesome! It should work! And yet, it doesn’t. The PlayStation knows that this is a counterfeit
disc, and it won’t play it. Why? Well, the data on these two discs may be exactly
the same, but this disc is missing something which cannot be replicated by a CD burner. Now, it’s actually pretty easy to get around
this. Mod chips and disc swapping were two well
known ways to bypass this copy protection. And of course these days, there are emulators,
so using the console itself isn’t even required. Now I’m not going make a comment on the
pitfalls of DRM or the people who circumvent it. Sony has valid reasons for using it, and there
are also perfectly legitimate reasons for an individual to use a copied disc–for example
to provide a backup of your software library. But in this video, I’d like to suggest a
way that Sony could have made the PlayStation discs almost impossible to copy. There’s a certain quirk in the design of
these consoles that suggests they might have had this in mind, but abandoned it. So first, let’s take a quick look at the
history of the console, as well as how the copy protection actually works. The original Sony PlayStation was a groundbreaking
product in a number of ways. Though not the first video game console to
use the compact disc for data storage, it was the first to achieve widespread success. There’s a fascinating history as well as
a juicy tale of corporate backstabbing behind the PlayStation’s creation which I won’t
go into here in much detail. But if you weren’t aware, the PlayStation
started as an accessory for the SNES. Yep, Nintendo hired Sony as a hardware accessory
partner, and after deciding that the terms of the contract weren’t to their liking
in regards to software rights, Nintendo just shoved Sony aside and instead announced a
new partnership with Philips. Rather than just abandon their work, Sony
decided to make their own game console as the ultimate F.U. to Nintendo. Using optical storage for game data had tons
of advantages over the then standard ROM cartridges. They were cheaper to make, could hold MUCH
more data, were smaller, more versatile, and due to that extra data, allowed for things
such as CD-quality audio alongside gameplay. The CD-ROM’s biggest disadvantage was that
of a slow load time, as the data being read from the disc isn’t coming in particularly
quickly. A ROM cartridge could be read at any point
randomly and with higher data throughput, allowing many games to load nearly instantly. Oh, and the CD was also pretty fragile, so
there’s that, too. And, uh, early consoles suffered from a poorly
designed CD reader, so… well they weren’t perfect. Even though the original PlayStation only
has a measly 2 megabytes of RAM, a normal CD only outputs 1.2 megabits per second. The CD-ROM drive in the PlayStation could
operate at 2X speed, but even then it would take 6.5 seconds to fill the RAM completely. But of course, it usually took longer than
that, as the laser would have to dart around the disc to get all of the data it needed
to load the next environment. Want to play a skirmish in Twisted Metal 4? You’ll be staring at this screen and listening
to this for a good while. [Sound of console seeking data on CD] Anyway, though there were downsides, the CD-ROM
is arguably what made the original PlayStation so successful. But it also introduced that unique problem for
Sony. All cartridge based video game systems are
essentially immune to counterfeit copies being made of their games. You’d need to have awfully specialized equipment
to duplicate one of these, and then you’d need to track down a blank cartridge with
writable memory. So, it was pretty much never done. But the CD-ROM, well that’s easy as pie
to copy! Although they were pretty expensive at the
time, the CD Burner was very much a thing when the PS1 was released, and so was the
CD-R. Obviously worried about the potential for piracy, Sony engineered a pretty clever
trick into the system to ensure only legit discs could be played. However, it wasn’t actually that clever. OK, well, the actual feature is, but the implementation
wasn’t. Like I said before, in reality it was pretty
easy to get around the copy protection. So then, how does the copy protection on the
PS1 discs work? First, let’s get it out of the way and say
that the black color of the disc has nothing to do with it, whatsoever. Though one promo video about the PlayStation
suggests that this could be the purpose, it isn’t. This is just for looks. [NARRATOR: Black ink is added to the plastic
to give the CD its distinctive, “cool PlayStation-only look.” This also helps protect the CD from illegal
copying.] Actually, it’s not even black, it’s a
very deep purpley-blue. This is a similar color of plastic to what’s
commonly found in front of infrared light sensors on a device with a remote control. It’s completely transparent to infrared
light, but mostly opaque to visible light. There was nothing special about the PlayStation’s
CD-ROM drive that allowed it to read these discs. The infrared light of a normal CD laser will
read it just fine. Side note–In my last video, I made an error
in suggesting that DVD players don’t have an infrared laser, and use their red laser
to read a CD. This is not true, in fact many early DVD players
have two complete laser pickups on a single sled, and later devices used the same laser
with two diodes. The wavelength of light is pretty important
for reading an optical disc correctly–it’s tuned to the size of the pits–so a second
infrared laser diode is necessary to read a CD. I had completely forgotten about the importance
of wavelength, and thankfully the comments set me straight. One commenter noted that CD compatible DVD
laser pickups usually have two adjustment pots on them, one for the IR laser, and one
for the red laser, and sure enough, there they are! Anyway, What Sony actually did was to add two things
to the disc during mastering that weren’t normally there on a garden variety compact
disc. Well, actually, it was one addition that accomplished
two tasks. To understand what they did requires a little
bit of knowledge into the laser pickup system of any optical disc format. It’s impossible to produce a CD, DVD, Laserdisc,
Blu-Ray, or economic policy that is exactly perfect. There will always be some imperfections. The discs aren’t usually completely flat,
so the distance between the disc and laser lens is constantly fluctuating. The disc is also never exactly centered, so
the pits usually move back and forth with each rotation. To handle this, the objective lens is sort
of floating, and electromagnets can lift it (or lower it) as well as wiggle it left and
right it to make sure the pits are in focus, and that it’s following the data spiral. To see this in action, it’s actually easiest
to look at a Laserdisc. This disc is badly warped, and towards the
edges the laser is bouncing pretty wildly to keep its focus distance constant. Though almost never this extreme, a CD player
or PlayStation needs to do this, too. In fact, here’s the laser of a PlayStation
wiggling back and forth ever so slightly to read the data from this Audio CD. This clip also shows how the laser carriage
only moves for coarse tracking in steps. Notice how it moves outward, but the position
of the lense relative to the disc doesn’t change. Now, the laser’s movement is only there
to maintain tracking on the data stream. A CD player couldn’t care less about what
the Laser is doing, it just wants to see the data. Any wobbliness of the track is irrelevant
to its goal of reading the data; so as long as the wobble isn’t too extreme, its presence
is of no consequence. Generally, the circuitry in charge of this
tracking and focus is part of the laser pickup assembly. This task is done at the hardware level, and
can be considered automatic from the perspective of the circuitry that actually processes the
data itself. There’s a really great paper linked in the
description that goes over how this is actually accomplished. What Sony did was introduce a way to actually
keep track of how the laser lens moved. The hardware would monitor the horizontal
movement of the objective lens, and it was looking for a specific wobble in the data
it’s reading. As part of the mastering process in PlayStation
discs, the very first sectors of data in the pregap are recorded with a wobble of a specific
frequency. Rather than a smooth spiral, the track looked
something like this. The wobbling was also used for encoding which
region the disc was for. The region code was amplitude modulated into
the wobble itself, and if the code on the disc didn’t match the console’s BIOS,
it would not play. The reason this worked was that any ordinary
CD drive would just ignore this wobble. Actually, ignore isn’t quite the right word. It was unaware of the wobble. The tracking circuitry in its laser pickup
would just do its job and keep the laser in line with the data stream. It didn’t matter how the data wobbled, or
even if the data wobbled. Its job was just to get the data. When you made a copy, that copy would be missing
the wobble. When the CD drive is reading the disc to make
an image file for burning, it isn’t even aware of the wobble. The data captured during the disc read is
all that matters for burning the disc. Now, a CD burner is looking for a wobble
on a CD-R, but for a very different reason. A CD-R has a premade wobble molded into the
polycarbonate–that’s the plastic the disc is made of. This wobble contains the ATIP, which tells
the CD burner the properties of the disc such as its capacity and maximum write speed, and
throughout the rest of the disc it wobbles at a constant frequency. A CD burner is looking for this wobble as
it writes to a disc both to maintain proper tracking as it writes on it, as well as to
maintain the proper writing speed. Because this wobble is already there on a
CD-R, even if a CD drive could detect the region-encoding wobble on a PlayStation disc,
it couldn’t recreate it. To recreate the wobble of a PlayStation disc
would require jumping in and out of this premade groove, which the burner can’t do. Even if it tried, by crossing the premade
lines, the data would likely be impossible to read correctly. Where Sony failed was by being a little lazy
with how disc authenticity is checked. With few exceptions, the console only looks
for this wobble at bootup. People figured this out, and by defeating
the lid switch and carefully watching a disc spin, you can see when it’s checking for
the wobble and swap in a burned copy for a real disc with a little practice. The reason this worked is that Sony built
in a healthy bit of tolerance for damaged discs; so as long as you are fast enough,
it will just pass the disc off as being scratched, thus needing multiple attempts to read the
data. But disc swapping was annoying and also could
damage your discs and perhaps even the console, so the other option was to install a modchip
that would inject the code into the system at the right time, so even though the laser
wasn’t seeing the wobble, the processor would think that it did. Game developers eventually created ways to
detect a modchip, so this wasn’t completely infallible, but it was still a relatively
easy way to play a burnt disc. So now that you know what the PS1 does to
determine the validity of a disc, as well as why it was so easy to get around it, here’s
where my little theory comes into play. I had mentioned there’s a design quirk. When you open up the lid of a PS1, you might
notice that the area that holds the CD is MUCH larger than the CD itself. Could it be that Sony had originally intended
for PS1 discs to be larger than a standard CD? Some people think the PS1 discs contain data
outside the range of a normal CD’s laser carriage, and that this is how the copy protection
works. While this isn’t the case, Sony could have
done that. And if they did it by going outside the normal
readable area, they could have really locked this down. Imagine that the PlayStation discs were an
extra 3 centimeters across, making it a 15 centimeter disc rather than 12. If Sony had extended the rails on their CD
drive in here, the laser could read all the way to the edge of this slightly larger disc. Not only would this have increased the amount
of data on the disc, but it would have made copying them almost impossible. Almost every CD drive has a second insert
for 8 cm discs, and top loading drives can of course handle them, too. The physical size of a CD can be smaller,
and it will still work. But if Sony had gone bigger, you could not
physically fit a PlayStation disc into the standard five and a quarter inch CD burner
in your PC. If would fit fine in here, but there’s no
way it will make it in here. If they had done this, the PS1 could still
play audio CDs just fine. It wouldn’t remove any functionality from
the system. It’s already more than capable of playing
an 8 cm CD OK. And if they had always ensured that some of
the game data was written outside the 12cm diameter of a normal CD, even on smaller games
which needed less than the 700 megabytes of data available on standard CD, a copy would
be impossible to make without the console noticing. If Sony had gone this route, can you imagine
how difficult it would be to make a duplicate disc? No one was making CD drives capable of reading
a disc that large, and there would be little incentive to start doing so. Even if a CD burner appeared on the market
which could handle a 15 centimeter disc, how easy do you think it would be to get your
hands on a 15 centimeter CD-R? Now, it’s obvious why Sony didn’t do this. The whole point of using the CD was to make
manufacturing games quick and cheap. To make a 15cm CD is really to make an entirely
new format. That would require new disc pressing machinery,
or at the very least significant retooling of existing machinery. Also, a new case design would be needed, with
a physically larger disc being more difficult to store. The standard CD jewel case already had the
support of countless storage systems. But if they had decided to just make the discs
a tiny bit bigger, which the design of the early consoles suggests was possible, if not
intended, mod chips and disc swapping couldn’t have done a thing. A burned PlayStation game simply couldn’t
exist. Thanks for watching, I hope you enjoyed this
video. If this is your first time coming across this
channel, please consider subscribing so you won’t miss the next ones. And, you can now follow me on Twitter @ TechConnectify. That’s what happens when you’re late to
the party. Of course, I’d like to take the time to
thank my Patreon supports. Patrons of the channel are what keep these
videos coming. If you’re interested in becoming a patron
as well, please check out my Patreon page. There’s a link on your screen, or you can
find one in the description. Thanks for your consideration, and I’ll
see you next time! [Snaps fingers] And That!… is the end.

100 Replies to “Sony’s Clever but Flawed PlayStation Copy Protection–And How They Might Have Fixed It”

  1. As far as I understood the protection mechanism is based on the hardware capabilities of PS1 disc reader, has to do with wobble control (with the help of 2nd sensor) and that's the end of the explanation. 8cm disc theory is nonsensical, as the author honestly admitted; entertaining such alternative reality theories is a counterpoint to the supposedly scientific character of this channel/video.

  2. The PlayStation was so popular back to 1995 because it was easy to duplicate disks and play games for free

  3. 2nd world and 3rd world countries, piracy was rampant , south america, eastern europe etc..
    basically i never saw an original ps1, in these countries you can basically go into a place like walmart and buy an already chip modded ps1 from retail stores, in fact the only original game i even saw in the ps1 was a demo disc that came with a magazine, but this also helped to make the console very popular because it made accesible, do mind that these countries had and still have an entire different life from a first world country, and at the time buying an original game meant spending an entire month's worth of work for a single game. So that's why sometimes even retail stores sold already modded ps1's, and believe it or not they would also sell pirated games, also those countries we're developing, so just like china, piracy laws we're basically non-existant, in my former country for example at the time most stores even paid fucking taxes to sell their pirated games, most people bought the modded ps1 and pirated games, that's because the quality was outstanding for a pirated game, you had the case, the disc had the image of the game printed on it, the only thing that would differ it from a real original disc was the black back of the disc , and just like that everybody thought that was the original thing because that's all we had, in the ps2 era it was even more rampant but at the time everybody was aware it was pirated. Laws had gotten tougher and your common brand retail store couldn't simply sell pirated games anymore, and the quality had gotten alot lower the games had shitty low res printing on it and they're sold on a fucking plastic bag case.

  4. 9:48 while they were being lazy , it was actually the most genius way to detect modchips by game makers , the game will try to grab the region code from the CD after boot (usually at press start screen) and theoretically it should fail , if it can get region code then there's a modchip installed , Spyro and the year of the dragon is the best example

  5. HAHAHA I remember freshman year going round the dorms – "hey bro, u got a cigarette? I wanna play this ripped copy of Smackdown."

  6. I'm not confident a larger disc would have greatly impeded the ability to pirate games on the PlayStation.

    As proof of this, simply review the history of Sega's Dreamcast. The Dreamcast uses discs that are the same physical size as normal CD-ROM and DVD-ROM discs, but are a completely different format: GD-ROM. Like a larger CD-ROM, GD-ROM's were (and still are) incompatible with unmodified optical drives found in PC's, and are capable of holding more data. Despite this, the Dreamcast still had a notable piracy scene. Once a suitable method was found to execute code natively on the Dreamcast, they were connected to PCs and used as drives to dump their own discs. A similar method for dumping the discs could have been achieved on the PlayStation. Code for a disc dumper could be written to a CD and then executed either through the CD swap trick, or a mod chip. Official titles could then be dumped either through the Serial I/O or Parallel I/O port on the system.

    Now that we have a dump of the contents of this larger PlayStation disc, there comes the issue of writing it to a standard CD-R. How would it fit? While we can't be entirely certain how much the difference in capacity would be since none of these discs are known to exist, we can look again at the Dreamcast. A GD-ROM is capable of holding 1GB of data, yet images of many games can be burned onto CD-R discs and then played directly. How? The answer is the simple removal of data. Either through lowering the quality of the audio tracks in the game, removing assets such as pre-rendered cutscenes, or other methods, the amount of space required to fit the game can be reduced sufficiently in most cases. While this is more complicated than making a 1:1 copy of a PlayStation disc, the wide availability of modified Dreamcast images suggests it would not be a difficult process.

    While these discs may have complicated piracy to some degree had they been deployed, the history of Dreamcast game piracy strongly suggests that it would still have been possible and a simple change in the diameter of the disc would not have hampered efforts very much.

  7. Thought: Couldn’t you buy cheaper games (like how Minecraft costs $20 while COD costs $60) and then pirate the games onto those?

    This wouldn’t be free, but it would be 3x as cheap in the example I used above

    Wouldn’t it still have the special wobble?

  8. Your videos are great. Just a comment: bootleg /pirated cartridges were common as hell in Brazil in Atari and Nes/Snea eras.

  9. 3:30 How I had all three of these is really nostalgic: PS, The exact model of that Sony TV, and that game

  10. I'm going say no. Too many things needed to be built and tested to make that happen. And we are talking Sony, where they love to create new formats.

  11. I remember one day, would have been about 4 or 5, I came down stairs to jump on the PS1 to find it gone – obviously causing me and my brother to freak and think we'd done something wrong….

    Nah, my dad just sent it off to get it modded haha

  12. I made a scratch the size of a pinhead one the art side of my half life disc while trying to scrape off some sticker residue, and it's totally dead. Glad DVDs are a little more durable.

  13. My dad deployed to Korea when the PlayStation was out. He came back with a mod chipped PS1 with a whole tub of bootleg games. Good memories 🙂

  14. I still have My PS1 right beside Me. Even though It Is Chipped, I play still play Real Playstation games on It. They just look and Sound better. The Jewel Case games are getting harder to find now. Damn.

  15. Thumbs up if you played Samurai Slowdown on this console. You could practically build a katana from scratch by the time the game loaded

  16. Yeah, but i loved my $5 games. I was a kid with 5 games for 1. Remember how bad most games were? Buyers remorse didnt hit me. Ide just load the next one.

  17. Also another way could be to read the meta of the disc (size must be exactly… and it couldn't write any data on it)

  18. I was hoping you could help me about something that been bothering me for years. My friend had a CD with a math learning program on it. It could apparently only be installed on 3x computers. Obviously it could not detect how many times its been installed , as its a normal CD and we used to have ROM`s only……..but it DID work. After 3x times in a new PC , the program refused to install again. HOW??????????

  19. I have five PS1 games that are practically impossible to emulate. I can do it, but it's hit and miss on Windows, Linux and Android. I would love to know what it is about these five disks that make them so iffy / touchy. The games are: Hot Wheels – Turbo Racing (USA); and all four Pro Pinball games (The Web, Timeshock, Fantastic Journey and Big Race (USA)). I read one posting and it said the Hot Wheels can't be done, but I can do it with Mednafen in Windows (but no other emulator or core). Oh, and I have all the bios. And get this, on a hacked PSP and a hacked Vita there are problems. Weird. These are good roms too (I've tried all I could find and even my own rips). You can take a working rom and put it in the hacked PSP and it won't run (but everything else does)(just not these five). The pinball games blackscreen and Hot Wheels plays the intro and music and then stops (bin/cue; PBP; multi bin / cue – doesn't matter) I would love to ask the author of Mednafen what it is and how he solved it. Thanks

  20. My childhood best friend's first mod chip required him to swap…. was this thing just a gimmick that lied about doing anything for his 30-bux? ha…I dunno, but I like the video!

  21. Load times??!

    Lol… ever played on a 486dx2 60mhz processor before the internet era and ps era? Been there done that 😝

    Made my ps1 look like a monster 😂

  22. Literally found a psx outside of my house all the cables and a pad it was dirty and looked kinda damp but I took it apart and cleaned it all working fine 100 percent but to my surprise it's modded lol and seems to play really badly scratched disc better the the other psx 1002 I was given in July so yay the console gods are blessing me ….also a copy of sonic adventure2 complete was the just water damaged slightly so if you want a copy of it for the sega dreamcast hit me up 🤙 lol

  23. Back in the day I ordered a cheap flip top lid & a copy of swap magic and that was all it took to break the copy protection on my old ps2. Couldn't play pirated games online but for a kid who was broke it gave me access to a lot of games I wouldn't have been able to play otherwise.

  24. CDRs were far from ubiquitous at the time of the PS's development. I doubt they figured much in Sony's decision making process. Also disc-swapping messed up the audio track positions.

  25. Since CD-Burners at the time had no way to even emulate the BCA data if that was their that wound have helped as will.

  26. We can complain about the load speed of twisted metal four now but back then we all know we were stoked to smash buttons as soon as the load bar vanished 🤣🤣🤣 load speed didn't matter so much back then.

  27. I think that the space around the disc is to offer air so that the disc doesn't melt from a certain heat-failure from the Playstation itself .

    That is also what i dislike with the DVD/Bluray format they could easily use the same jewel case used as a CD and so it would take lesser space in our shelves .

    Funny is that the CD's from the 80's & 90's to 2005 are all easy to copy to any format Audio Cassettes , CD-R since there wasn't an anti-copy codec . It only started to appear in 2005 and later because the MP3's and those Peer2Peer sites ( Napster, Audiogalaxy Rhapsody, Morpheus, Kazaam,…) . Same goes for the first discs from the Playstation 1 many of them weren't protected and could easily being pirated with the right codecs . Of course back in the mid 90's such materials were very expensive to get .

    The biggest question is why didn't have they changed of format when they invented the Playstation 2 to avoid the piracy with discs would have been much wiser imho ?? Strange they kept using the "disc format" for all their consoles from Playstation 1 to 4 .

  28. I really wanna know why the gamecube discs are so small. And why the PSP discs have to be inside their own special cases.

  29. This is B.S. if Sony create bigger disk, then the hardware of PS1 would be cost too much. Also who said no one will create larger CD-R to drive to copy PS1 game?

  30. My first 50x PC CD-ROM was a slot load. It even came with a sticker across the slot warning that: “Purposeful ejection of a CD while spinning may result in decapitation.” 😜

  31. well, actualy, you could try to extract the files from the larger cd with a modified console, then burn the data on a normal size disk. it would probably work

  32. Nice try but you are completely and utterly wrong. You most certainly WOULD have been able to have mod chips for larger discs – just for one example of why your idea wouldn't work, though there are others – and all Sony would have done is increase their manufacturing costs, and added hassle to those of us who didn't mod our machines because we know what it's like to spend years developing a product.

  33. There were at least 2 PS1-2 games that took advantage of this system in gameplay (I think). The games Monster Rancher 1 and 2 had a system where different game or music CDs would let the player 'find' new monsters, and they even had rare monsters tied to specific discs. My friend and I spent hours going through our collections generating monsters, and spent an embarrassing amount of money on the discs for rare monsters once the names began circulating online. I myself ended up buying 3 different copies of Beck's Mellow Gold, hoping to find the correct version the game was looking for.

  34. Speaking about Piracy, Sega did create a new compact disk format that increased the capacity of a CD to 1GB. Dubbed the GDROM. It also tried to use this format to deter piracy, however the Dreamcast used a version of Windows for embedded systems, thus people found out how to hack it and send the data from the GDROM to a PC, where it could be burned to a normal CD ( most games used less than 1GB of space). The vulnerability of Windows CE allowed pirated games, home brewed software such as emulators and MPEG player with out the need for a mod chip or a hacked game save as the original xbox had (also runs a modified version of Windows)

  35. Wait, so ALL of the PS CD's were supposed to be black? Means every game I owned was pirated. Except for that one demo CD with WWE, Urban Chaos, Medievil and some Golf thing.

  36. Imagine if Nintendo never did that to Sony! There would just be Xbox One and Switch, a perfect gaming world…

  37. old video .. but there was one thing i remember a burning software for non-modded psx consoles did
    reversed burn … it would write a little bit of info data in the most outer part of the disc telling the laser to move to the most inner which contained the rest of the game/software data , it only worked from iso to disc and not from psx disc to copy though

  38. Not criticizing but, noticing. As as fast you're speaking, it feels like you are trying to play beat the clock and it's quite funny and fun to watch when I'm stoned. How much caffeine did you consume before recording this?

  39. 5:49 the red laser and ir laser are for the the same thing, a CD player could use either one and I've witnessed CD players of both types… A DVD has an ultraviolet or a near violet laser for the shorter wavelength and pits. Umm, correct me if I'm wrong. After opening 100s of them I'm pretty sure but could have been in the dark all along

  40. "and you can now follow me on Twitter @TechConnectify; that's what happens when you're late to the party" hahaha so true. Really enjoyed the video with all the the insight you provided – subscribed!

  41. I remember playing on my friend PlayStation and the load times. It felt like we were playing on an unfinished product. I also remember buying my first CD burner in 2000. Hewlett Packard with a high speed of 40x read/4x write. Slow as hell!!!

  42. I believe they knew it was flawed and that if you were clever/poor enough to get round it Sony would respect this and allow it off the record? 🤔 What do you think? My reasoning is if they made perfect software you couldn't copy they would limiting their use/sales. Perhaps even limiting sales of blank discs. 🤔 (Also If 1m people out of 10m customers bought one blank disk to try to copy it (they were expensive then) then that was ¥2m in generated sales. So they weren't naive about this.)

  43. OH SHID, DEEP
    only true intellectuals will understand this collaboration of letters to make what is commonly considered as a “joke”.
    (the tale of Nintendo versus Sony)

  44. I want to add that the black tint of the disc does indeed seem to aid in the copy protection. The wobbling of the laser can happen for a number of reasons, not just due to how the track is set up, but it seems that it can also be affected by light interfeerence from other sources. The black tint seems to help the laser identify only the wobbling produced by the track and not due to outside sources. This is also the reason why the disc can be read with the lid open. Some later PS2 models are more sensitive and will be unable to detect the wobble if the lid is open and will refuse to read an original disc.

  45. Disc size would not have been an issue, as long as the PS1 was able to play audio CD's. it would not have mattered. My GC can play full size DVD backups, and all it took was a replacement top. DC was the same, but even easier.

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