Long Island | Wikipedia audio article

Long Island | Wikipedia audio article


Long Island is a densely populated island
off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor approximately 0.35 miles
(0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island
comprises four counties in the U.S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties (the
New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, respectively) and Nassau County share the
western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More
than half of New York City’s residents now live on Long Island, in Brooklyn and Queens.
However, many people in the New York metropolitan area (including those in Brooklyn and Queens)
colloquially use the term Long Island (or the Island) to refer exclusively to Nassau
and Suffolk Counties, which are mainly suburban in character, conversely employing the term
the City to mean Manhattan alone.Broadly speaking, “Long Island” may refer both to the main island
and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound,
across which lie Westchester County, New York, and the state of Connecticut. Across the Block
Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island
is separated from the Bronx and the island of Manhattan by the East River. To the extreme
southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York
Bay, the Narrows, and Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs
to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands.
Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island
extends 118 miles (190 km) eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum
north-to-south distance of 23 miles (37 km) between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic
coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles (3,630 km2), Long Island is the 11th-largest
island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214
square miles (3,140 km2) of the smallest U.S. state, Rhode Island.With a Census-estimated
population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State’s population,
Long Island is the most populated island in any U.S. state or territory, and the 18th-most
populous island in the world (ahead of Ireland, Jamaica, and Hokkaidō). Its population density
is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile (2,160.3/km2). If Long Island geographically constituted
an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the
United States; while if it were a U.S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population
and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring
some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near
the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties.
As a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan
area’s three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition
to Islip MacArthur Airport; as well as two major air traffic control radar facilities,
the New York TRACON and the New York ARTCC. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels (including railroad
tunnels) connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries
connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut.
The Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7.
Nassau County high school students often feature prominently as winners of the Intel International
Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards. Biotechnology companies and
scientific research play a significant role in Long Island’s economy, including research
facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island
Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University
Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, and Hofstra Northwell School
of Medicine.==History=====Early history===
Prior to European contact, the Lenape people (named the Delaware by Europeans) inhabited
the western end of Long Island, and spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian
language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter
with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524. The eastern portion
of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language
group of Algonquian languages; they were part of the Pequot and Narragansett peoples inhabiting
the area that now includes Connecticut and Rhode Island.
In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed
at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, and is credited as the first European
to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred
to Long Island as Sewanhaka (Sewanhacky and Sewanhacking were other spellings in the transliteration
of Lenape). Sewan was one of the terms for wampum (commemorative stringed shell beads,
for a while also used as currency by colonists in trades with the Lenape), and is also translated
as “loose” or “scattered”, which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island. The
name “‘t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs” appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. Later, the English
referred to the land as “Nassau Island”, after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince
of Orange (who later also ruled as King William III of England). It is unclear when the name
“Nassau Island” was discontinued. Another indigenous name from colonial time, Paumanok,
comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means “the island that pays tribute.” The very first settlements on Long Island
were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner
settled nearby Gardiners Island. The first settlement on the geographic Long Island itself
was on October 21, 1640, when Southold was established by the Rev. John Youngs and settlers
from New Haven, Connecticut. Peter Hallock, one of the settlers, drew the long straw and
was granted the honor to step ashore first. He is considered the first New World settler
on Long Island. Southampton was settled in the same year. Hempstead followed in 1644,
East Hampton in 1648, Huntington in 1653, Brookhaven in 1655, and Smithtown in 1665. While the eastern region of Long Island was
first settled by the English, the western portion of Long Island was settled by the
Dutch; until 1664, the jurisdiction of Long Island was split between the Dutch and English,
roughly at the present border between Nassau County and Suffolk County. The Dutch founded
six towns in present-day Brooklyn beginning in 1645. These included: Brooklyn, Gravesend,
Flatlands, Flatbush, New Utrecht, and Bushwick. The Dutch had granted an English settlement
in Hempstead, New York (now in Nassau County) in 1644, but after a boundary dispute they
drove out English settlers from the Oyster Bay area. However, in 1664, the English returned
to take over the Dutch colony of New Netherland, including Long Island.
The 1664 land patent granted to the Duke of York included all islands in Long Island Sound.
The Duke of York held a grudge against Connecticut, as New Haven had hidden three of the judges
who sentenced the Duke’s father, King Charles I, to death in 1649. Settlers throughout Suffolk
County pressed to stay part of Connecticut, but Governor Sir Edmund Andros threatened
to eliminate the settlers’ rights to land if they did not yield, which they did by 1676.All
of Long Island (as well as the islands between it and Connecticut) became part of the Province
of New York within the Shire of York. Present-day Suffolk County was designated as the East
Riding (of Yorkshire), present-day Brooklyn was part of the West Riding, and present-day
Queens and Nassau were part of the larger North Riding. In 1683, Yorkshire was dissolved
and the three original counties on Long Island were established: Kings, Queens, and Suffolk.===18th and 19th centuries===Early in the American Revolutionary War, the
island was captured by the British from General George Washington in the Battle of Long Island,
a decisive battle after which Washington narrowly evacuated his troops from Brooklyn Heights
under a dense fog. After the British victory on Long Island, many Patriots fled, leaving
mostly Loyalists behind. The island remained a British stronghold until the end of the
war in 1783. General Washington based his espionage activities
on Long Island, due to the western part of the island’s proximity to the British military
headquarters in New York City. The Culper Spy Ring included agents operating between
Setauket and Manhattan. This ring alerted Washington to valuable British secrets, including
the treason of Benedict Arnold and a plan to use counterfeiting to induce economic sabotage.
Long Island’s colonists served both Loyalist and Patriot causes, with many prominent families
divided among both sides. During the occupation British troops used a number of civilian structures
for defense and demanded to be quartered in the homes of civilians. A number of structures
from this era remain. Among these are Raynham Hall, the Oyster Bay home of patriot spy Robert
Townsend, and the Caroline Church in Setauket, which contains bullet holes from a skirmish
known as the Battle of Setauket. Also in existence is a reconstruction of Brooklyn’s Old Stone
House, on the site of the Maryland 400’s celebrated last stand during the Battle of Long Island. In the 19th century, Long Island was still
mainly rural and devoted to agriculture. The predecessor to the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR)
began service in 1836 from the South Ferry in Brooklyn, through the remainder of Brooklyn,
to Jamaica in Queens. The line was completed to the east end of Long Island in 1844 (as
part of a plan for transportation to Boston). Competing railroads (soon absorbed by the
LIRR) were built along the south shore to accommodate travellers from those more populated
areas. For the century from 1830 until 1930, total population roughly doubled every twenty
years, with more dense development in areas near Manhattan. Several cities were incorporated,
such as the ‘City of Brooklyn’ in Kings County, and Long Island City in Queens.
Until the 1883 completion of the Brooklyn Bridge, the only means of travel between Long
Island and the rest of the United States was by boat or ship. As other bridges and tunnels
were constructed, areas of the island began to be developed as residential suburbs, first
around the railroads that offered commuting into the city. On January 1, 1898, Kings County
and portions of Queens were consolidated into the ‘City of Greater New York’, abolishing
all cities and towns within them. The easternmost 280 square miles (730 km2) of Queens County,
which were not part of the consolidation plan, separated from Queens in 1899 to form Nassau
County. At the close of the 19th century, wealthy
industrialists who made vast fortunes during the Gilded Age began to construct large “baronial”
country estates in Nassau County communities along the North Shore of Long Island, favoring
the many properties with water views. Proximity to Manhattan attracted such men as J. P. Morgan,
William K. Vanderbilt, and Charles Pratt, whose estates led to this area being nicknamed
the Gold Coast. This period and the area was immortalized in fiction, such as F. Scott
Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, which has also been adapted in films.===20th century===Charles Lindbergh lifted off from Roosevelt
Field with his Spirit of Saint Louis for his historic 1927 solo flight to Europe, one of
the events that helped to establish Long Island as an early center of aviation during the
20th Century. Other famous aviators such as Wiley Post originated notable flights from
Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, which became the first major airport serving New York City
before it was superseded by the opening of La Guardia Airport in 1939. Long Island was
also the site of Mitchel Air Force Base and was a major center of military aircraft production
by companies such as Grumman and Fairchild Aircraft during World War II and for some
decades afterward. Aircraft production on Long Island extended all the way into the
Space Age – Grumman was one of the major contractors that helped to build the early
lunar flight and space shuttle vehicles. Although the aircraft companies eventually ended their
Long Island operations and the early airports were all later closed – Roosevelt Field,
for instance, became the site of a major shopping mall – the Cradle of Aviation Museum on
the site of the former Mitchel Field documents the Island’s key role in the history of aviation.
From the 1920s to the 1940s, Long Island began the transformation from backwoods and farms
as developers created numerous suburbs. Numerous branches of the LIRR already enabled commuting
from the suburbs to Manhattan. Robert Moses engineered various automobile parkway projects
to span the island, and developed beaches and state parks for the enjoyment of residents
and visitors from the city. Gradually, development also followed these parkways, with various
communities springing up along the more traveled routes.
After World War II, suburban development increased with incentives under the G.I. Bill, and Long
Island’s population skyrocketed, mostly in Nassau County and western Suffolk County.
Second and third-generation children of immigrants moved out to eastern Long Island to settle
in new housing developments built during the post-war boom. Levittown became noted as a
suburb, where housing construction was simplified to be produced on a large scale. These provided
opportunities for World War II military veterans returning home to buy houses and start a family.
In his 1966 book, My Private America (Moja prywatna Ameryka), Kazimierz Wierzyński,
a Polish poet who could not go back to Poland after World War Two, describes Polish farmers
living there, as “walking novels”.===21st century===By the start of the 21st century, a number
of Long Island communities had converted their assets from industrial uses to post-industrial
roles. Brooklyn reversed decades of population decline and factory closings to resurface
as a globally renowned cultural and intellectual hotbed. Gentrification has affected much of
Brooklyn and a portion of Queens, relocating a sizeable swath of New York City’s population.
On eastern Long Island, such villages as Port Jefferson, Patchogue, and Riverhead have been
changed from inactive shipbuilding and mill towns into tourist-centric commercial centers
with cultural attractions. The descendants of late 19th and early 20th-century
immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, and black migrants from the South, have been
followed by more recent immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Long Island has many ethnic
Irish, Jews, and Italians, as well as an increasing numbers of Asians and Hispanics, reflecting
later migrations.==Geography==The westernmost end of Long Island contains
the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn (Kings County) and Queens (Queens County). The central
and eastern portions contain the suburban Nassau and Suffolk Counties. However, colloquial
usage of the term “Long Island” usually refers only to Nassau and Suffolk Counties. For example,
the Federal Reserve Bank of New York has a district named “Long Island (Nassau-Suffolk
Metro Division).” At least as late as 1911, locations in Queens were still commonly referred
to as being on Long Island. Some institutions in the New York City section of the island
use the island’s names, like Long Island University and Long Island Jewish Medical Center.
In 1985, the United States Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Maine that Long Island
is legally not an island, because New York State’s boundaries contained its offshore
soil and seabeds. Despite the legal decision the United States Board on Geographic Names
still considers Long Island an island, because it is surrounded by water.Nassau County is
more densely developed than Suffolk County. While affluent overall, Nassau County has
pockets of more pronounced wealth with estates covering greater acreage within the Gold Coast
of the North Shore and the Five Towns area on the South Shore. South Shore communities
are built along protected wetlands of the island and contain white sandy beaches of
Outer Barrier Islands fronting on the Atlantic Ocean. Dutch and English settlers from the
time before the American Revolutionary War, as well as communities of Native Americans,
populated the island. The 19th century saw the infusion of the wealthiest Americans in
the so-called Gold Coast of the North Shore, where wealthy Americans and Europeans in the
Gilded Age built lavish country homes. In its easternmost sections, Suffolk County
remains semi-rural, as in Greenport on the North Fork and some of the periphery of the
area prominently known as The Hamptons, although summer tourism swells the population in those
areas. The North Fork peninsula of Suffolk County’s East End has developed a burgeoning
Wine Country region. In addition, the South Fork peninsula is known for beach communities,
including the Hamptons, and for the Montauk Point Lighthouse at the eastern tip of the
island. The Pine Barrens is a preserved pine forest encompassing much of eastern Suffolk
County.===Geology===
A detailed geomorphological study of Long Island provides evidence of glacial history
of the kame and terminal moraines of the island which were formed by the advance and retreat
of two ice sheets. Long Island, as part of the Outer Lands region, is formed largely
of two spines of glacial moraine, with a large, sandy outwash plain beyond. These moraines
consist of gravel and loose rock left behind during the two most recent pulses of Wisconsin
glaciation during the Ice Ages some 21,000 years ago (19,000 BC). The northern moraine,
which directly abuts the North Shore of Long Island at points, is known as the Harbor Hill
moraine. The more southerly moraine, known as the Ronkonkoma moraine, forms the “backbone”
of Long Island; it runs primarily through the very center of Long Island, roughly coinciding
with the length of the Long Island Expressway. The land to the south of this moraine to the
South Shore is the outwash plain of the last glacier. One part of the outwash plain was
known as the Hempstead Plains, and this land contained one of the few natural prairies
to exist east of the Appalachian Mountains. The glaciers melted and receded to the north,
resulting in the difference between the topography of the North Shore beaches and the South Shore
beaches. The North Shore beaches are rocky from the remaining glacial debris, while the
South Shore’s are crisp, clear, outwash sand. Jayne’s Hill, at 401 feet (122 m), within
Suffolk County near its border with Nassau County, is the highest hill along either moraine;
another well-known summit is Bald Hill in Brookhaven Town, not far from its geographical
center at Middle Island. The glaciers also formed Lake Ronkonkoma in Suffolk County and
Lake Success in Nassau County, each a deep kettle lake.===Countyscapes======
Climate===Under the Köppen climate classification,
Long Island lies in a transition zone between a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and a humid
continental climate (Dfa). The climate features long hot summers, with occasional thunderstorms,
mild spring and fall weather, and cool to cold winters with a mix of snow and rain and
stormier conditions. Springs can be cool and sometimes gloomy due to the relatively cooler
temperatures of the Atlantic Ocean. The ocean also brings afternoon sea breezes that temper
the heat in the warmer months and limit the frequency and severity of thunderstorms. Long
Island has a moderately sunny climate, averaging 2,400 to 2,800 hours of sunshine annually. Due to its coastal location, Long Island winter
temperatures are significantly milder than most of the state. The coldest month is January,
when average temperatures range from 30 to 35 °F (−1 to 2 °C), and the warmest month
is July, when average temperatures range from 70 to 80 °F (21 to 27 °C). Temperatures
seldom fall below 5 °F (−15 °C) or rise above 95 °F (35 °C). Long Island temperatures
vary from west to east, with the western part (Nassau County, Queens, and Brooklyn) generally
warmer than the east (Suffolk County). This is due to several factors: the western part
is closer to the mainland and more densely developed, causing the “urban heat island”
effect, and Long Island’s land mass veers northward as one travels east. Also, daytime
high temperatures on the eastern part of Long Island are cooler on most occasions, due to
the moderating effect of the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound. On dry nights with
no clouds or wind, the Pine Barrens forest of eastern Suffolk County can be almost 20
degrees Fahrenheit (11 degrees Celsius) cooler than the rest of the island, due to radiational
cooling. Average dew points, a measure of atmospheric moisture, typically lie in the
60–70 °F (16–21 °C) range during July and August. Precipitation is distributed fairly uniformly
throughout the year, with approximately 3–4 inches (76–102 mm) on average during each
month. Average yearly snowfall totals range from approximately 20 to 35 inches (51 to
89 cm), with the north shore and western parts averaging more than the south shore and the
east end. In any given winter, however, some parts of the island can see up to 75 inches
(190 cm) of snow or more. There are also some very quiet winters, in which most parts of
the island could see less than 10 inches (25 cm) of snow.
On August 13, 2014, flash flooding occurred in western-central Suffolk County after a
record-setting rainfall deposited more than three months’ worth of precipitation on the
area within a few hours.Long Island is somewhat vulnerable to tropical cyclones. While it
lies north of where most tropical cyclones turn eastward and out to sea (most landfalls
on the East Coast of the USA occur from North Carolina southward), several tropical cyclones
have struck Long Island, including a devastating Category 3, the 1938 New England Hurricane
(also known as the “Long Island Express”), and another Category 3, Hurricane Carol in
1954. Other 20th-century storms that made landfall on Long Island at hurricane intensity
include the Great Atlantic Hurricane of 1944, Hurricane Donna in 1960, Hurricane Belle in
1976, and Hurricane Gloria in 1985. Also, the eyewall of Hurricane Bob in 1991 brushed
the eastern tip. In August 2011, portions of Long Island were evacuated in preparation
for Hurricane Irene, a Category 1 hurricane which weakened to a tropical storm before
it reached Long Island.On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive damage to
low-lying coastal areas of Nassau and Suffolk Counties, Brooklyn, and Queens, destroying
or severely damaging thousands of area homes and other structures by ocean and bay storm
surges. Hundreds of thousands of residents were left without electric power for periods
of time ranging up to several weeks while the damage was being repaired. The slow-moving
“Superstorm Sandy” (so-nicknamed because its winds weakened below hurricane intensity as
it made landfall) caused 90% of Long Island households to lose power and an estimated
$18 billion in damages in Nassau and Suffolk Counties alone. The storm also had a devastating
impact on coastal communities in the Brooklyn and Queens portions of the island, including
Coney Island in Brooklyn and the Rockaway Peninsula in Queens, although estimates of
monetary damages there are usually calculated as part of the overall losses suffered in
New York City as a whole. When allowance is made for inflation, the extent of Sandy’s
damages is second only to that of those caused by the 1938 Long Island Express. Although
a lower central pressure was recorded in Sandy, the National Hurricane Center estimates that
the 1938 hurricane had a lower pressure at landfall. Hurricane Sandy and its profound
impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around
the shorelines of Long Island and New York City to minimize the risk of destructive consequences
from another such event in the future.===Additional islands===Several smaller islands, though geographically
distinct, are in proximity to Long Island and are often grouped with it. These islands
include Fire Island, the largest of the outer barrier islands that parallels the southern
shore of Long Island for approximately 31 miles (50 km); Plum Island, which was home
to the Plum Island Animal Disease Center, a biological weapons research facility; as
well as Robins Island, Gardiners Island, Fishers Island, Long Beach Barrier Island, Jones Beach
Island, Great Gull Island, Little Gull Island, and Shelter Island.==Demographics==Long Island is one of the most densely populated
regions in the United States. As of the United States 2010 Census, the total population of
all four counties of Long Island was 7,568,304, which was 39% of the population of the State
of New York. As of 2017, the proportion of New York City residents living on Long Island
had risen to 58%, given the 5,007,353 residents living in Brooklyn or Queens. Furthermore,
the proportion of New York State’s population residing on Long Island has also been increasing,
with Long Island’s Census-estimated population increasing 4.0% since 2010, to 7,869,820 in
2017, representing 39.6% of New York State’s Census-estimated 2017 population of 19,849,399
and with a population density of 5,617.3 inhabitants per square mile (2,168.9/km2) on Long Island.
Long Island’s population is greater than 37 of the 50 U.S. states.
As of the 2010 census, the combined population of Nassau and Suffolk Counties was 2,832,882
people; Suffolk County’s share being 1,493,350 and Nassau County’s 1,339,532. Nassau County
had a larger population for decades, but Suffolk County surpassed it in the 1990 census as
growth and development continued to spread eastward. As Suffolk County has more than
three times the land area of Nassau County, the latter still has a much higher population
density and is growing faster in the 21st century, given its proximity to New York City.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2008 American Community Survey, Nassau and Suffolk
Counties had the 10th and 26th highest median household incomes in the nation, respectively.Population
figures from the U.S. Census Bureau Census 2010
show that whites are the largest racial group in all four counties, and are in the majority
in Nassau and Suffolk Counties. In 2002, The New York Times cited a study by the non-profit
group ERASE Racism, which determined that Nassau and Suffolk Counties constitute the
most racially segregated suburbs in the United States.In contrast, Queens is the most ethnically
diverse county in the United States and the most diverse urban area in the world.According
to a 2000 report on religion, which asked congregations to respond, Catholics are the
largest religious group on Long Island, with non-affiliated in second place. Catholics
make up 52% of the population of Nassau and Suffolk, versus 22% for the country as a whole,
with Jews at 16% and 7%, respectively, versus 1.7% nationwide. Only a small percentage of
Protestants responded, 7% and 8% respectively, for Nassau and Suffolk Counties. This is in
contrast with 23% for the entire country on the same survey, and 50% on self-identification
surveys.A growing population of nearly half a million Chinese Americans now live on Long
Island. Rapidly expanding Chinatowns have developed in Brooklyn (布魯克林) and Queens
(皇后), with Chinese immigrants also moving into Nassau County, as did earlier European
immigrants, such as the Irish and Italians. The busy intersection of Main Street, Kissena
Boulevard, and 41st Avenue defines the center of Downtown Flushing and the Flushing Chinatown
(法拉盛華埠), known as the “Chinese Times Square” or the “Chinese Manhattan”. The segment
of Main Street between Kissena Boulevard and Roosevelt Avenue, punctuated by the Long Island
Rail Road trestle overpass, represents the cultural heart of the Flushing Chinatown.
Housing over 30,000 individuals born in China alone, the largest by this metric outside
Asia, Flushing has become home to the largest and one of the fastest-growing Chinatowns
in the world as the heart of over 250,000 ethnic Chinese in Queens, representing the
largest Chinese population of any U.S. municipality other than New York City in total. Conversely,
the Flushing Chinatown has also become the epicenter of organized prostitution in the
United States, importing women from China, Korea, Thailand, and Eastern Europe to sustain
the underground North American sex trade.More recently, a Little India (लघु भारत)
community has emerged in Hicksville, Nassau County, spreading eastward from the more established
Little India enclaves in Queens. Likewise, the Long Island Koreatown (롱 아일랜드
코리아타운) originated in Flushing, Queens, and is expanding eastward along Northern Boulevard
and into Nassau County.Long Island is home to two Native American reservations, Poospatuck
Reservation, and Shinnecock Reservation, both in Suffolk County. Numerous island place names
are Native American in origin. A 2010 article in The New York Times stated
that the expansion of the immigrant workforce on Long Island has not displaced any jobs
from other Long Island residents. Half of the immigrants on Long Island hold white-collar
positions.The Counties of Nassau and Suffolk have been long renowned for their affluence.
Long Island is home to some of the wealthiest communities in the United States, including
The Hamptons, on the East End of the South Shore of Suffolk County; the Gold Coast, in
the vicinity of the island’s North Shore, along Long Island Sound; and increasingly,
the western shoreline of Brooklyn, facing Manhattan. In 2016, according to Business
Insider, the 11962 zip code encompassing Sagaponack, within Southampton, was listed as the most
expensive in the U.S., with a median home sale price of $8.5 million.==Economy==Long Island has played a prominent role in
scientific research and in engineering. It is the home of the Brookhaven National Laboratory
in nuclear physics and Department of Energy research. Long Island is also home to the
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which was directed for 35 years by James D. Watson (who, along
with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin, discovered the double helix structure of DNA).
Companies such as Sperry Rand, Computer Associates (headquartered in Islandia), Zebra Technologies
(now occupying the former headquarters of Symbol Technologies, and a former Grumman
plant in Holtsville), have made Long Island a center for the computer industry. Stony
Brook University of the State University of New York and New York Institute of Technology
conduct advanced medical and technological research. Long Island is home to the East Coast’s largest
industrial park, the Hauppauge Industrial Park, hosting over 1,300 companies which employ
more than 71,000 individuals. Companies in the park and abroad are represented by the
Hauppauge Industrial Association. As many as 20% of Long Islanders commute to jobs in
Manhattan. The eastern end of the island is still partly agricultural. Development of
vineyards on the North Fork has spawned a major viticultural industry, replacing potato
fields. Pumpkin farms have been added to traditional truck farming. Farms allow fresh fruit picking
by Long Islanders for much of the year. Fishing continues to be an important industry, especially
at Huntington, Northport, Montauk, and other coastal communities of the East End and South
Shore. From about 1930 to about 1990, Long Island
was considered one of the aerospace manufacturing centers of the United States, with companies
such as Grumman Aircraft, Republic, Fairchild, and Curtiss having their headquarters and
factories on Long Island. These operations have largely been phased out or significantly
diminished.==Government and politics==Nassau County and Suffolk County each have
their own governments, with a County Executive leading each. Each has a county legislature
and countywide-elected officials, including district attorney, county clerk, and county
comptroller. The towns in both counties have their own governments as well, with town supervisors
and a town council. Nassau County is divided into three towns and two small incorporated
cities (Glen Cove and Long Beach). Suffolk County is divided into ten towns.
Brooklyn and Queens, on the other hand, do not have county governments. As boroughs of
New York City, both have borough presidents, which have been largely ceremonial offices
since the shutdown of the New York City Board of Estimate. The respective Borough Presidents
are responsible for appointing individuals to the Brooklyn Community Boards and Queens
Community Boards, each of which serves an advisory function on local issues. Brooklyn’s
sixteen members and Queens’ fourteen members represent the first and second largest borough
contingents of the New York City Council.===Law enforcement===Queens and Brooklyn are patrolled by the New
York City Police Department. Nassau and Suffolk Counties are served by the Nassau County Police
Department and Suffolk County Police Department, respectively, although several dozen villages
and the two cities in Nassau County have their own police departments. The Nassau County
Sheriff’s Department and Suffolk County Sheriff’s Office handle civil procedure, evictions,
warrant service and enforcement, prisoner transport and detention, and operation of
the county jail. New York State Police patrol state parks and parkways. The several SUNY
colleges and universities are patrolled by the New York State University Police.===Statehood proposals===The secession of Nassau and Suffolk Counties
on Long Island from New York State was proposed as early as 1896, but talk was revived towards
the latter part of the twentieth century. On March 28, 2008, Suffolk County Comptroller
Joseph Sawicki proposed a plan that would make Nassau and Suffolk Counties on Long Island
the 51st state of the United States of America. Sawicki claimed that all of the Nassau and
Suffolk taxpayers’ money would remain locally, rather than the funds being dispersed all
over the entire state of New York, with these counties sending to Albany over three billion
dollars more than they receive back. The state of Long Island would have included nearly
3 million people (a larger population than that of fifteen other states). Nassau County
executive Ed Mangano came out in support of such a proposal in April 2010 and commissioned
a study on it.==Transportation==Almost every major form of transportation
serves Long Island, including aviation from John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia
Airport, and Long Island MacArthur Airport, and multiple smaller airports; rail transportation
on the Long Island Rail Road and the New York City Subway; bus routes from MTA Regional
Bus Operations, Nassau Inter-County Express, and Suffolk County Transit; ferry service
from NYC Ferry and multiple smaller ferry companies; and several major highways. There
are historic and modern bridges, and recreational and commuter trails, serving various parts
of Long Island. There are ten road crossings out of Long Island,
all within New York City limits at the extreme western end of the island. Plans for a Long
Island Crossing at various locations in Nassau and Suffolk Counties (a proposed bridge or
tunnel that would link Long Island to the south with New York or Connecticut to the
north across Long Island Sound) have been discussed for decades, but there are no firm
plans to construct such a crossing.===Public transportation===The MTA implements mass transportation for
the New York metropolitan area including all five boroughs of New York City, the suburban
counties of Dutchess, Nassau, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk, and Westchester, all of
which together are the “Metropolitan Commuter Transportation District (MCTD)”.
The MTA is the largest public transportation provider in the Western Hemisphere. Its agencies
serve 14.6 million people spread over 5,000 square miles (13,000 km²) from New York City
through the southeastern section of the state (including Long Island and the lower Hudson
Valley), and Connecticut. Combined the MTA agencies now move more than 2.6 billion rail
and bus customers a year while employing some 70,000 workers.====Rail====The Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) is the busiest
commuter railroad system in North America, carrying an average of 282,400 passengers
each weekday on 728 daily trains. Chartered on April 24, 1834, and operating continuously
since, it is also the oldest railroad in the U.S. that is still operating under its original
charter and name. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority has operated the LIRR as one of
its two commuter railroads since 1966, and the LIRR is one of the few railroads worldwide
that provides service all the time, year round. In July 2017, a $2 billion plan to add a third
railroad track to the LIRR Main Line between the Floral Park and Hicksville stations in
Nassau County was approved. Other LIRR projects, such as the Ronkonkoma Branch Double Track
Project, are also underway. Five “readiness projects” across the LIRR system, which will
cost a combined $495 million, are also under construction in preparation for expanded peak-hour
LIRR service after the completion of East Side Access, which will bring LIRR trains
to Grand Central Terminal.====Bus====Nassau Inter-County Express (NICE) provides
bus service in Nassau County, while Suffolk County Transit, an agency of the Suffolk County
government, provides bus service in Suffolk County. In 2012, NICE replaced the former
Long Island Bus in transporting Long Islanders across Nassau County while still allowing
them to use MTA MetroCards as payment.===Roads===The Long Island Expressway, Northern State
Parkway, and Southern State Parkway, all products of the automobile-centered planning of Robert
Moses, are the island’s primary east-west high-speed controlled-access highways.====Ground transportation====
Being such a large, populous island with several airports connecting the island to the rest
of the world, there are several hundred transportation companies that service the Long Island/New
York City area. Winston airport shuttle, the oldest of these companies in business since
1973, was the first to introduce door-to-door shared-ride service to and from the major
airports, which almost all transportation companies now utilize.==Education=====
Primary and secondary education===Many public and private high schools on Long
Island are ranked among the best in the United States. Nassau and Suffolk Counties are the
home of 125 public school districts containing a total of 656 public schools. It also hosts
a number of private schools such as Friends Academy, Chaminade High School, Kellenberg
Memorial High School, St. Anthony’s High School, and North Shore Hebrew Academy, as well as
parochial schools, many of which are operated by the Catholic Diocese of Rockville Centre.
In contrast, all of Brooklyn and Queens are served by the New York City Department of
Education, the largest school district in the United States. Three of the nine specialized
high schools in New York City are in the two Long Island boroughs, those being Brooklyn
Latin School, Brooklyn Technical High School (one of the original three specialized schools),
and Queens High School for the Sciences. Like Nassau and Suffolk Counties, they, too, are
home to numerous private schools, such as Poly Prep Country Day School, Packer Collegiate
Institute, and Saint Ann’s School, and Berkeley Carroll School, and parochial schools operated
by the Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn.===Colleges and universities===Long Island is home to a range of higher-education
institutions, both public and private. Brooklyn and Queens contain five of eleven senior colleges
within CUNY, the public university system of New York City and one of the largest in
the country. Among these are the notable institutions of Brooklyn College and Queens College. Brooklyn
also contains private colleges such as Pratt Institute and the New York University Polytechnic
School of Engineering, an engineering college that merged with New York University in 2014.
Several colleges and universities within the State University of New York system are on
Long Island, including Stony Brook (which noted its health sciences research and medical
center), as well as Nassau Community College and Suffolk County Community College that
serve their respective counties. Private institutions include the New York Institute of Technology,
Hofstra University and Adelphi University (both in the Town of Hempstead), as well as
Long Island University (with its C.W. Post campus, on a former Gold Coast estate in Brookville,
and a satellite campus in downtown Brooklyn). Long Island also contains the Webb Institute,
a small naval architecture college in Glen Cove. In addition, the island is home to the
United States Merchant Marine Academy, a Federal Service Academy in Kings Point, on the North
Shore.==Culture=====Music===Music on Long Island (Nassau and Suffolk)
is strongly influenced by the proximity to New York City and by the youth culture of
the suburbs. Psychedelic rock was widely popular in the
1960s as flocks of disaffected youth travelled to NYC to participate in protest and the culture
of the time. R & B also has a history on Long Island, especially in areas close to New York
City. In the late 1970s through the 1980s, the influence of radio station WLIR made Long
Island one of the first places in the U.S. to hear and embrace European New Wave bands
such as Depeche Mode, the Pet Shop Boys, and Culture Club. In the 1990s, hip-hop became
very popular with rap pioneers Rakim, EPMD, and Public Enemy growing up on Long Island.
Long Island was the home of a bustling emo scene in the 2000s, with bands such as Brand
New, Taking Back Sunday, Straylight Run, From Autumn to Ashes and As Tall as Lions. More
recently, newer acts have been making a name for themselves originating from Long Island,
including Austin Schoeffel, Jon Bellion, and Envy on the Coast.
Famous rock bands that originated on Long Island include The Rascals, The Ramones (from
Queens), Dream Theater, Blue Öyster Cult, Twisted Sister and guitar virtuosos Donald
(Buck Dharma) Roeser, John Petrucci, Steve Vai and Joe Satriani, as well as drummer Mike
Portnoy. Rock and pop singer Billy Joel grew up in Hicksville, Long Island and his youthful
life there is reflected in some of his music. The Nassau Coliseum and Northwell Health at
Jones Beach Theater are venues used by national touring acts as performance spaces for concerts.
Northwell Health at Jones Beach Theater is an outdoor amphitheatre at Jones Beach State
Park. It is a popular place to view summer concerts, with new as well as classic artists
performing there during the summer months. It hosts a large Fourth of July fireworks
show every year which fills the stands. People also park cars along the highway leading to
the show, and others watch from the nearby beaches.Long Island is also known for its
school music programs. Many schools in Suffolk County have distinguished music programs,
with high numbers of students who are accepted into the statewide All-State music groups,
or even the National All-Eastern Coast music groups. Both the Suffolk County and Nassau
County Music Educator’s Associations are recognized by The National Association for Music Education
(NAfME), and host numerous events, competitions, and
other music-related activities.===Cuisine===Long Island has historically been a center
for fishing and seafood. This legacy continues in the Blue Point oyster, a now ubiquitous
variety that was originally harvested on the Great South Bay and was the favorite oyster
of Queen Victoria. Clams are also a popular food and clam digging a popular recreational
pursuit, with Manhattan clam chowder reputed to have Long Island origins. Of land-based produce, Long Island duck has
a history of national recognition since the 19th century, with four duck farms continuing
to produce 2 million ducks a year as of 2013. Two symbols of Long Island’s duck farming
heritage are the Long Island Ducks minor-league baseball team and the Big Duck, a 1931 duck-shaped
building that is a historic landmark and tourist attraction. In addition to Long Island’s duck
industry, Riverhead contains one of the largest buffalo farms on the East coast.Long Island
is well known for its production of alcoholic beverages. Eastern Long Island is a significant
producer of wines. Vineyards are most heavily concentrated on Long Island’s North Fork,
which contains 38 wineries. Most of these contain tasting rooms, which serve as popular
tourist attractions for visitors from across the New York metropolitan area. Long Island
has also become a producer of diverse craft beers, with 15 microbreweries existing across
Nassau and Suffolk Counties as of 2013. The largest of these is Blue Point Brewing Company,
best known for its toasted lager. Long Island is also globally known for its signature cocktail,
the Long Island Iced Tea, which purportedly was invented at the popular Babylon, Oak Beach
Inn nightclub in the 1970s.The eateries on Long Island are largely a product of the region’s
local ethnic populations. Asian cuisines, Italian cuisine, Jewish cuisine, and Latin
American cuisines were the most popular categories of ethnic cuisine on Long Island as of the
second decade of the 2000s. Asian cuisines are predominantly represented by East Asian,
South Asian, and Middle Eastern cuisines. Italian cuisine is found in ubiquitous pizzerias
spread throughout the island, with the region hosting an annual competition, the Long Island
Pizza Festival & Bake-Off. Jewish cuisine is likewise represented by delicatessens and
bagel stores. Latin American cuisines span their geographical origins, ranging from Brazilian
rodizios to Mexican taquerias.===Sports=======
Major league sports====The New York Mets baseball team plays at Citi
Field in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. Their former stadium, Shea Stadium was also
home for the New York Jets football team from 1964 until 1983. The new stadium is designed
with an exterior façade and main entry rotunda inspired by Brooklyn’s famous Ebbets Field
(see below). The New York Mets had planned to move their Double-A farm team to Long Island,
as part of the ambitious but now-defunct plan for Nassau County called The Lighthouse Project.
The Brooklyn Cyclones are a minor league baseball team, affiliated with the New York Mets. The
Cyclones play at MCU Park just off the boardwalk on Coney Island in Brooklyn. An artificial
turf baseball complex named Baseball Heaven is in Yaphank. The Barclays Center, a sports arena, business,
and residential complex built partly on a platform over the Atlantic Yards at Atlantic
Avenue in Brooklyn, is the home of the Brooklyn Nets basketball team and the New York Islanders
hockey team. The move from New Jersey in the summer of 2012 marked the return to Long Island
for the Nets franchise, which played at Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Uniondale from
1972 to 1977. The Islanders played at Nassau Coliseum from their 1972 inception through
2015. Ebbets Field, which stood in Brooklyn from
1913 until its demolition in 1960, was the home of the Brooklyn Dodgers baseball team,
who moved to California after the 1957 Major League Baseball season to become the Los Angeles
Dodgers. The Dodgers won several National League pennants in the 1940s and 1950s, losing
several times in the World Series—often called Subway Series—to their Bronx rivals,
the New York Yankees. The Dodgers won their lone championship in Brooklyn in the 1955
World Series versus the Yankees. Despite this success during the latter part
of the team’s stay in Brooklyn, they were a second-division team with an unspectacular
winning record for much of their history there – but nonetheless became legendary for the
almost-fanatical devotion of the Brooklynites who packed the relatively small ballpark to
vigorously root for the team they affectionately called, “Dem Bums”. Loss of the Dodgers to
California was locally considered a civic tragedy that negatively affected the community
far more than did the similar moves of other established teams to new cities in the 1950s,
including the Dodgers’ long-time arch-rival New York Giants, who also left for California
after 1957.====Minor league and college sports====Long Island is also home to the Long Island
Ducks minor league baseball team of the Atlantic League. Their stadium, Bethpage Ballpark,
is in Central Islip. The Brooklyn Cyclones minor league baseball team, affiliated with
the New York Mets, plays in the Short-Season A classification New York–Penn League. The
Cyclones play at MCU Park just off the Coney Island boardwalk in the New York City borough
of Brooklyn. The New York Dragons of the Arena Football League played their home games at
Nassau Coliseum.The two main rugby union teams are the Long Island RFC in East Meadow and
the Suffolk Bull Moose in Stony Brook. The New York Sharks is a women’s American
football team that is a member of the Women’s Football Alliance.The New York Sharks home
field is at Aviator Sports Complex in Brooklyn. Long Island has a professional soccer club,
the New York Cosmos, who play in the Division 2 North American Soccer League at James M.
Shuart Stadium in Hempstead. Long Island has historically been a hotbed
of lacrosse at the youth and college level, which made way for a Major League Lacrosse
team in 2001, the Long Island Lizards. The Lizards play at Mitchel Athletic Complex in
Uniondale.====Other sports====
Long Island has a wide variety of golf courses found all over the island. Two of the most
famous are the Shinnecock Hills Golf Club and the public Bethpage Black Course that
both has hosted multiple U.S. Open tournaments as well as several other top level international
championships. Queens also hosts one of the four tennis grand slams, the US Open. Every
August (September, in Olympic years) the best tennis players in the world travel to Long
Island to play the championships, which is held in the USTA National Tennis Center, adjacent
to Citi Field in Flushing Meadows Park. The complex also contains the biggest tennis stadium
in the world, the Arthur Ashe Stadium. Long Island also has two horse racing tracks,
Aqueduct Racetrack in Ozone Park, Queens and Belmont Park on the Queens/Nassau border in
Elmont, home of the Belmont Stakes. The longest dirt thoroughbred racecourse in the world
is also at Belmont Park. Another category of sporting events popular in this region
involves firematic racing events, involving many local volunteer fire departments.====Notable sportspeople and teams====
Long Island is home to numerous famous athletes, including Hall of Famers Jim Brown, Julius
Erving, John Mackey, Whitey Ford, Nick Drahos, and Carl Yastrzemski. Others include Gold
Medalists Sue Bird, Sarah Hughes and Derrick Adkins, D’Brickashaw Ferguson, Billy Donovan,
Larry Brown, Rick Pitino, John McEnroe, Jumbo Elliott, Mick Foley, Zack Ryder, Matt Serra,
Boomer Esiason, Vinny Testaverde, Craig Biggio, Frank Catalanotto, Greg Sacks, Rob Burnett,
Steve Park, Frank Viola, Chris Weidman, Marques Colston and Speedy Claxton.
Several NHL players were born and/or raised on Long Island, such as Vancouver Canucks
Christopher Higgins and Matt Gilroy, Nashville Predators Eric Nystrom, Toronto Maple Leaf
Mike Komisarek, Pittsburgh Penguin Rob Scuderi, and New Jersey Devil Keith Kinkaid. Both Komisarek
and Higgins played on the same Suffolk County Hockey League team at an early age, and later
played on the Montreal Canadiens together. Nick Drahos was an All Scholastic and All
Long Island honoree at Lawrence High School, Nassau Co. in 1936 and 1937, and a two-time
Unanimous National College All-American in the years of 1939 and 1940 at Cornell University.==See also==
Geography of New York City List of films shot on Long Island
List of Long Island recreational facilities List of Long Islanders, famous residents of
Nassau and Suffolk List of people from New York City, including
famous residents of Brooklyn and Queens List of references to Long Island places in
popular culture Long Island (proposed state)
New Netherland Timeline of town creation in Downstate New
York==Notes

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